Sunday, February 21, 2016

Radio-Resistance in Mice Previously Exposed to Hormetic Levels

We are aware that inoculations strengthen the immune system by mildly stressing it and causing antibodies to arise that fight any further intrusion of a similar type of invader. In effect, vaccinations are examples of hormesis: Small doses of poison are stimulatory. The poison in this case is a virus, not an inorganic toxin. Hans Seyle (chapter 4) doesn't care what it is. As long as it stresses the host organism, it starts an alarm reaction that stimulates a defense mechanism.

If radiation hormesis is a valid concept, we might expect small doses of radiation to ward off the bio-negative effects of higher doses - obviously not through the creation of antibodies but by some currently unknown mechanism. Figure 11 illustrates just such a phenomenon.


In this 1990 experiment by M. Yonezawa et al. [Yonezawa, M., Takeda, A., and Misonoh, J. Acquired radioresistance after low-dose x-irradiation in mice. Journal of Radiation Research, 31, 256, 1990], mice were irradiated with a low dose of X-rays (50 cGy or 50,000 mrad) two weeks before a second potentially lethal dose of 740 cGy (740,000 mrad). The survival rates of the irradiated group were compared with the unexposed controls. There isn't much question as to which mouse group I'd want to line up with on "innoculation day."

Table 8 (in chapter 8 - or see below) shows the dose-response for humans is similar to that which Yonezawa finds for mice - at 700 mrem, we're both dead or close to it. Would humans have a similar radio-resistance response? We don't know and aren't likely to until the knee-jerk reaction to anything nuclear is abated by scrapping the LNT. If I were a nuclear worker - involved in changing fuel elements where high-level (but so far, nonfatal) accidents have occurred, or an astronaut potentially subjected to a cosmic radiation barrage, or perhaps a soldier with the potential for high-level exposure from a neutron bomb, I think I'd want someone to look into the radio-resistance phenomenon who wasn't committed to the LNT hypothesis and likely to state at the outset, "All radiation is harmful - and it's our job to keep you from having any."

Table 8 – Acute Radiation Syndrome
Subclinical Range
0 – 100 rads
Therapeutic Range
100 – 500 rads
Lethal Range
500+ rads

100 – 200
200 – 300
300 – 500
500 – 2000
2000+
Appropriate Action
None
Clinical surveillance
Therapy effective
Therapy promising
Therapy palliative (comfort patient only)
Incidence of Vomiting
None
100 rads: 5%
200 rads: 50%
75%
75%
100%
100%
Delay Time
n/a
3 hours
2 hours
1 hour
3 min.
3 min.
Main Organs Affected
None
Blood Forming Tissue
Gastro-intestinal Tract
Central Nervous System
Characteristic Signs
None
White Blood Cell Decrease
Fatigue, infection, erythema, sterilization, loss of hair above 300 rads, hemorrhage
Diarrhea, fever, electrolyte imbalance, bleeding
Convulsion, coma, loss of muscle control, lethargy, tremors
Critical Period
n/a
n/a
4 – 6 weeks
5 – 14 days
1 – 48 hours
Post-exposure Therapy
Assure of Safety
Blood analysis; assure of safety
Blood transfusion; anti-biotics
Possible bone marrow transplant
Maintain electrolyte balance
Sedatives
Outlook
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Guarded
Hopeless
Hopeless
Convalescent Period
None
Several weeks
1 – 2 months
Long
n/a
n/a
Death Rate
None
None
0% - 40%
40% - 100%
90% - 100%
100%
Death Within
n/a
n/a
2 – 4 weeks
2 weeks
2 days
Cause of Death
n/a
n/a
Hemorrhage, infection
Dehydration
Respiratory failure; heart attack